University of Pittsburgh
Undergraduate Courses (2015-2016)

Spring 2016

HPS 0427 / CLASS 0330: Myth and Science
Markus Kneer
Tuesday 6:00-8:30 pm
How can we understand our world? In western culture, science dominates all our answers to this question. But there are other ways. They can be found in the mythologies of ancient and modern peoples. This course will compare the scientific and mythological ways of seeing the world and their more subtle connections. In particular, we will turn to the remarkable events in Ancient Greece of 800-400 B.C. and discover how the scientific approach actually grew slowly out of mythological thought itself.

HPS 0437: Darwinism and its Critics
Aaron Novick
M & W 9:30-10:45 am
Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory not only revolutionized biology, it has revolutionary implications for how we see ourselves and our place in nature. In this course, we will study the history of evolutionary theory from pre-Darwinian to contemporary biology, focusing on the reactions of the scientific, religious, and philosophical communities to evolutionary ideas. Two central questions will animate our discussion: (1) What is the scientific status of Darwinism (and its rivals)? (2) What are the implications of Darwinism for our beliefs about humanity's place in nature? We will end the course by considering in detail a variety of contemporary critics of Darwinism, both scientific and non-scientific.

HPS 0515 / HIST 0089: Magic, Medicine and Science
Dr. Jason Rampelt
M, W & F 11:00-11:50 am
This course will consider some of the most important lines of thought in Western intellectual history, from the Ancient Greeks to the Scientific Revolution. We will begin briefly with ancient Greek speculations in cosmology, natural philosophy, and medicine. Then we will examine how they develop through the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance. These include, among other topics, the magical, alchemical, and astrological traditions that flourished from Antiquity through the 17th century. In the second half of the course will focus on the exciting intellectual transformations in 17th-century Britain and Europe, which constitute the beginnings of modern science. The great scientific achievements of figures such as Galileo, Kepler, Copernicus, Descartes, Boyle, and Newton will be discussed. In this course, students will gain a clear understanding of the multi-dimensional origins of modern science.

HPS 0515 / HIST 0089: Magic, Medicine and Science
Dr. Eric Hatleback
Thursday 6:00-8:30 pm
This course will consider some of the most important lines of thought in Western intellectual history, from the Ancient Greeks to the Scientific Revolution. We will begin briefly with ancient Greek speculations in cosmology, natural philosophy, and medicine. Then we will examine how they develop through the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance. These include, among other topics, the magical, alchemical, and astrological traditions that flourished from Antiquity through the 17th century. In the second half of the course will focus on the exciting intellectual transformations in 17th-century Britain and Europe, which constitute the beginnings of modern science. The great scientific achievements of figures such as Galileo, Kepler, Copernicus, Descartes, Boyle, and Newton will be discussed. In this course, students will gain a clear understanding of the multi-dimensional origins of modern science.

HPS 0517: Thinking about the Environment
Nora Boyd
T & H 4:00-5:15 pm
The goal of this course is to promote clear and rigorous thinking about environmental issues, both global and local, such as climate change, biodiversity, land management, and resource extraction. Of central importance to many such issues is the concept of “naturalness”. As a result, cogent responses to environmental issues depend crucially on being about evaluate both subtle scientific and philosophical arguments. We aim to help students develop the skills needed to find the best available information on environmental issues, and to make informed and philosophically sophisticated judgments about what conclusions—and what actions—are warranted on the basis of that information.

HPS 0608 / PHIL 0610: Philosophy and Science
Dr. Giovanni Valente
M & W 12:00-12:50 pm
What is the relation between philosophy and science? On the one hand, the discoveries by scientists are often inspired by philosophical ideas. On the other hand, scientific achievements often pose deep conceptual questions to philosophers. The connection between these disciplines is thus so tied that it may become difficult to even draw a border between them. This course explores such a connection through the study of important episodes in the history of science. Specific issues of philosophy of science, such as scientific progress, confirmation and the method of science, will be addressed.
Recitation: One hour a week.

HPS 0610: Causal Reasoning
Lei Jiang
Tuesday 6:00-8:30 pm
How can scientists, statisticians, and other researchers distinguish causal relationships from those that are merely correlational? Why is this distinction important for medical research, public policy, and decision-making in everyday life? This course examines these questions and reasoning about causality in general. This course includes a web-based format for the textual material, exams, and virtual "Causality Lab." Students will use this lab to analyze simulated experiments, construct causal theories, derive predictions from these theories, and test predictions against simulated data. While the course materials are available on-line, students attend a weekly session for case study analysis and course material review.

HPS 0611: Principles of Scientific Reasoning
Dr. Keith Bemer
Wednesday 6:00-8:30 pm
The course will provide students with elementary logic skills and an understanding of scientific arguments. Ours is an increasingly scientific and technical society. In both our personal life decisions and in our work we are daily confronted by scientific results which influence what we do and how we do it. Basic skills in analyzing the structure of arguments in terms of truth and evidence are required to make this type of information accessible and useful. We hear, for example, that drinking alcoholic beverages reduces the chances of heart disease. We might well ask what sorts of tests were done to reach this conclusion and do the tests really justify the claim? We read that certain geographical configurations in South America "prove" that this planet was visited by aliens from outer space. Does this argument differ from other, accepted scientific arguments? This course is designed to aid the student in making sense of a variety of elementary logic skills in conjunction with the application of those skills to actual cases.

HPS 0612: Mind and Medicine
Dr. Wayne Christensen
Tuesday & Thursday 2:30-3:45 pm
Mind and Medicine deals with problems and questions that arise in considering how the mind plays certain roles in medical theory and practice. Of course, this means we must think about what the mind is. We will begin this course by looking at nature of emotions (particularly pleasure, fear, and empathy), how they might be explained, and see what role emotions play in judgments. Then we shall move on to examine briefly the placebo effect, what it is, and how it might function. From there we shall examine a case of a common mental illness, depression, and use it to examine the nature of explanation in medicine generally. We shall contrast such explanations with those given in evolutionary psychology. Finally, we will examine the some of the interrelations among certain aspects of mind, brain, and body.
Students who successfully complete this course will be able to identify and analyze different philosophical approaches to selected issues in the nature of mind, medicine and psychiatry; will have gained insight into how to read and critically interpret philosophical arguments; and have developed skills that will enable them to think clearly about some foundational questions as future or current health care providers, policy makers, and consumers. This course is also part of a core sequence leading to certification in the Conceptual Foundations of Medicine Certificate Program, and is a companion course to HPS 0613 (Morality and Medicine) but may be taken independently. The course may be of particular interest to pre-medical and pre-health care students.

HPS 0612: Mind and Medicine
Dr. James Woodward
M & W 1:00-1:50 pm
This course is designed as an introduction to the philosophical issues that exist at the intersection of psychology and medicine. Among others, we will examine the following questions: What does it mean to be healthy? Can one define health and sickness purely objectively? Or does the notion of disease involve value judgments of various sorts? What does it mean to say that a disease is “genetic”? Are diseases always best explained by appealing to lower-level biological details such as genetics and biochemistry? What does it mean to biological “mechanisms” in explaining disease? Should human medical judgments (e.g., clinicians’ judgments) be replaced by purely automatic computerized procedures? Are medical judgments influenced by various biases and can these biases be overcome? Are psychiatric disorders real? How should Scientists best explain psychiatric disorders? Can evolutionary biology be useful to psychiatry? The goal of this class is to provide students with a critical understanding of these philosophical issues. Previous knowledge of biology, psychology, and medicine is not needed for this class. Key notions and theories in these fields will be introduced progressively.
There are no formal prerequisites for this course.
This course is part of a core sequence leading to certification in the Conceptual Foundations of Medicine Program, and is a companion course to HPS 0613 (Morality and Medicine) but may be taken independently. This course is of particular interest to pre-medical and pre-health care students.
Recitation: One hour a week.

HPS 0612: Mind and Medicine
Kelsey Ward
Thursday 6:00-8:30pm
Mind and Medicine deals with problems and questions that arise in considering how the mind plays certain roles in medical theory and practice. Of course, this means we must think about what the mind is. We will begin this course by looking at nature of emotions (particularly pleasure, fear, and empathy), how they might be explained, and see what role emotions play in judgments. Then we shall move on to examine briefly the placebo effect, what it is, and how it might function. From there we shall examine a case of a common mental illness, depression, and use it to examine the nature of explanation in medicine generally. We shall contrast such explanations with those given in evolutionary psychology. Finally, we will examine the some of the interrelations among certain aspects of mind, brain, and body.
Students who successfully complete this course will be able to identify and analyze different philosophical approaches to selected issues in the nature of mind, medicine and psychiatry; will have gained insight into how to read and critically interpret philosophical arguments; and have developed skills that will enable them to think clearly about some foundational questions as future or current health care providers, policy makers, and consumers. This course is also part of a core sequence leading to certification in the Conceptual Foundations of Medicine Certificate Program, and is a companion course to HPS 0613 (Morality and Medicine) but may be taken independently. The course may be of particular interest to pre-medical and pre-health care students.

HPS 0613: Morality and Medicine
David Colaco
Monday 6:00-8:30pm
Ethical dilemmas in the practice of health care continue to proliferate and receive increasing attention from members of the health care profession, ethicists, policy makers, and the general public as health care consumers. In this course we will examine a number of ethical issues that arise in the context of contemporary medical practice and research by analyzing articles and decision scenarios. Topics to be covered typically include the physician-patient relationship; informed consent; medical experimentation; termination of treatment; genetics; reproductive technologies; euthanasia; resource allocation; and health care reform. Students who successfully complete this course will be able to identify and analyze different philosophical approaches to selected issues in medical ethics; have gained insight into how to read and critically interpret philosophical arguments; and have developed skills that will enable them to think clearly about ethical questions as future or current health care providers, policy makers, and consumers. This course is part of a core sequence leading to certification in the Conceptual Foundations of Medicine Certificate Program, and is a companion course to HPS 0612 (Mind and Medicine) but may be taken independently. The course is of particular interest to pre-medical and pre-health care students.

HPS 0613: Morality and Medicine
Dr. John Fritz
Wednesday 6:00-8:30pm
Ethical dilemmas in the practice of health care continue to proliferate and receive increasing attention from members of the health care profession, ethicists, policy makers, and the general public as health care consumers. In this course we will examine a number of ethical issues that arise in the context of contemporary medical practice and research by analyzing articles and decision scenarios. Topics to be covered typically include the physician-patient relationship; informed consent; medical experimentation; termination of treatment; genetics; reproductive technologies; euthanasia; resource allocation; and health care reform. Students who successfully complete this course will be able to identify and analyze different philosophical approaches to selected issues in medical ethics; have gained insight into how to read and critically interpret philosophical arguments; and have developed skills that will enable them to think clearly about ethical questions as future or current health care providers, policy makers, and consumers. This course is part of a core sequence leading to certification in the Conceptual Foundations of Medicine Certificate Program, and is a companion course to HPS 0612 (Mind and Medicine) but may be taken independently. The course is of particular interest to pre-medical and pre-health care students.

HPS 0613: Morality and Medicine
Kelsey Ward
Tuesday 6:00-8:30pm
Ethical dilemmas in the practice of health care continue to proliferate and receive increasing attention from members of the health care profession, ethicists, policy makers, and the general public as health care consumers. In this course we will examine a number of ethical issues that arise in the context of contemporary medical practice and research by analyzing articles and decision scenarios. Topics to be covered typically include the physician-patient relationship; informed consent; medical experimentation; termination of treatment; genetics; reproductive technologies; euthanasia; resource allocation; and health care reform. Students who successfully complete this course will be able to identify and analyze different philosophical approaches to selected issues in medical ethics; have gained insight into how to read and critically interpret philosophical arguments; and have developed skills that will enable them to think clearly about ethical questions as future or current health care providers, policy makers, and consumers. This course is part of a core sequence leading to certification in the Conceptual Foundations of Medicine Certificate Program, and is a companion course to HPS 0612 (Mind and Medicine) but may be taken independently. The course is of particular interest to pre-medical and pre-health care students.

HPS 0623: Explanations of Humans & Society
Dr. Peter K. Machamer
T & H 1:00-1:50pm
This course will look at some of the original writings of the three "giants" of modern psychology: Freud, Skinner and Piaget. The three movements of psychoanalysis, behaviorism and developmental cognition will be explored through their most articulate and well known proponents. Topics to be discussed include the nature of the emotions, the structures of behavior and the forms of human thought. Specifically, we will discuss how the concepts of desire, love, jealousy, homosexuality, skilled actions, language, and logical and moral reasoning can be used to understand human beings.
Warning: This course explicitly discusses human sexuality, sometimes in vernacular terms. If this is offensive to you. You should not register for this course.
Recitation: One hour a week.

HPS 1501: Ancient Scientific Astronomy
Dr. Keith Bemer
Wednesday 6:00-8:30pm
What are the experiences that affect our appreciation of literature, painting, or music? Does knowing about a work of art preclude deeply appreciating it? Is there a peculiar aesthetic experience? Is beauty in the eye of the beholder? Is smut? This course examines certain psychological and social aspects of human perception and thought as they relate to various arts. We will deal with how the psychological processes of perception and cognition can help us understand a person’s peculiar attraction to artworks. Is there a specific cultural or social dimension to works of art? Can we explain why humans react to and evaluate the works they do? How much is emotion? How much understanding? Movies, literature, painting, music, poetry, and cookery will be examined. In doing so we will explore the concepts of metaphor, interpretation, and artistic style.

HPS 1623 / RELGST 1725: Death & the Healthcare Professions-UHC
Dr. Jonathan Weinkle
Thursday 6:00-8:25 pm
The American culture of the 20th and 21st centuries has been called, not death-defying, but death-denying. It is often said that America is the only place in the world that treats death as optional. Once upon a time, we couldn’t have open, public conversations about breast cancer, because the word could not be uttered aloud. In many places, it is just as hard today to have an open, public conversation about death and dying. This phenomenon is not just a social more; it affects the practice of many professions and entire segments of our economy and society. This course will explore our individual and cultural reactions to mortality, the ways in which dying in today’s America is different from dying throughout history or elsewhere in the world, and the responses of a variety of professions, both within the field of healthcare and beyond, to their encounters with people in the various stages of dying. Students will be asked, at turns, to be scientific, philosophical, clinical, analytical, and emotional in encountering the concepts and material presented here. This should be a true interdisciplinary experience.

HPS 1702: JR/SR Seminar for HPS Majors
Dr. James G. Lennox
Tuesday 9:30 am-12:00 pm
Students enrolled in HPS 1702 have chosen to major in a subject known as History and Philosophy of Science. In this year's Junior/Senior Seminar we will explore the vexed question of the relationship between the study of the history of science and the study of the philosophy of science. Immediately after the publication of Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, this was a very hotly debated question. The debate was never resolved, and the field has 'splintered' in various ways as a result. We will start by going back and looking at the nature of that debate and its underlying assumptions, and look at the different ways in which historians and philosophers of science reacted to the debate. Each student in the class will be asked to select a research topic which combines historical and philosophical investigation of science, and to reflect on the respective roles of history and philosophy in their research.
Prerequisites: Must be an HPS major in junior or senior year.

HPS 1703: Writing Workshop for HPS Majors
Dr. James G. Lennox
Tuesday 9:30 am-12:00 pm
This writing workshop is designed to introduce HPS majors to the methods and standards of good scholarly writing in History and Philosophy of Science. It will be offered to HPS majors only in conjunction with HPS 1702, JR/SR Seminar. Evaluation will be based on two short papers that will be rewritten on the basis of the instructor's comments.
This Writing Workshop is for HPS Undergrad Majors in Junior or Senior Year.

Fall 2015

HPS 0427 / CLASS 0330: Myth and Science
Aaron Novick
Weds 6:00-8:30 pm
How can we understand our world? In western culture, science dominates all our answers to this question. But there are other ways. They can be found in the mythologies of ancient and modern peoples. This course will compare the scientific and mythological ways of seeing the world and their more subtle connections. In particular, we will turn to the remarkable events in Ancient Greece of 800-400 B.C. and discover how the scientific approach actually grew slowly out of mythological thought itself.

HPS 0430: Galileo & Creation of Modern Science
Dr. Paolo Palmieri
T & H 11:00-12:15 am
The Italian physicist and astronomer Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) was the decisive figure in the rise of modern science. First, he ushered in a new era in astronomy when he aimed a 30-powered telescope at the sky in 1610. Second, he revolutionized the concept of science when he argued that the book of nature is written in the language of mathematics. Finally, he astounded the theologians, who eventually condemned him to life imprisonment, when he claimed that the scientist's search for the truth cannot be constrained by religious authority. This course will study Galileo in the broader intellectual, social, and religious context of early modern Europe.

HPS 0515 / HIST 0089: Magic, Medicine and Science
Dr. Keith Bemer
Thursday 6:00-8:30 pm
This course is a partial survey of some important strands in the Western intellectual history. We will start with ancient Greek speculations in cosmology, philosophy, and medicine. Then we will look at some important subsequent developments in these areas and how they were influenced by the Greek tradition. These include, among other topics, the magical tradition that flourished during the Renaissance period. The latter half of the course will focus on the profound intellectual transformations in the 17th century which constitute what we often call The Scientific Revolution. The great scientific achievements of figures such as Descartes, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton will be discussed in detail. Overall, this course is meant to provide a broad picture of some of the most important elements in the Western intellectual tradition and their interactions in history.

HPS 0515 / HIST 0089: Magic, Medicine and Science
Tawrin Baker
M & W 3:00-4:15 pm
This course is a partial survey of some important strands in the Western intellectual history. We will start with ancient Greek speculations in cosmology, philosophy, and medicine. Then we will look at some important subsequent developments in these areas and how they were influenced by the Greek tradition. These include, among other topics, the magical tradition that flourished during the Renaissance period. The latter half of the course will focus on the profound intellectual transformations in the 17th century which constitute what we often call The Scientific Revolution. The great scientific achievements of figures such as Descartes, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton will be discussed in detail. Overall, this course is meant to provide a broad picture of some of the most important elements in the Western intellectual tradition and their interactions in history.

HPS 0605: Nature of the Emotions
Dr. James Lennox
M & W 12:00-12:50 am
This course is a historical and philosophical examination of theories and portrayals of the emotions. We will examine different philosophical and scientific accounts of such emotions as love, hate, desire, anger, jealousy, pride and grief, and the historical development of those accounts. A number of questions will guide our readings and discussions. How have philosophers and scientists portrayed the relationship between emotion, reason, will and morality. In what aspect or aspects of human nature are the emotions grounded—the body, the mind, or both? How are the emotions related to personality and behavior? Can one examine one’s emotions and control them, or change the way the emotions affect our behavior? Can philosophical and scientific theories about the emotions be tested and validated? And since beliefs about emotions change throughout history, and also from culture to culture, does this imply the emotions change as well? Does love, for example, have the same meaning in Ancient Greece, Medieval England, and modern day America; or in modern day America, Saudi Arabia, China, and Germany? The course readings will be a combination of writings by philosophers and scientists from Ancient Greece until the 21st Century.
Recitation: Once a week required.

HPS 0611: Principles of Scientific Reasoning
Nora Boyd
Mon 6:00-8:30 pm
The course will provide students with elementary logic skills and an understanding of scientific arguments. Ours is an increasingly scientific and technical society. In both our personal life decisions and in our work we are daily confronted by scientific results which influence what we do and how we do it. Basic skills in analyzing the structure of arguments in terms of truth and evidence are required to make this type of information accessible and useful. We hear, for example, that drinking alcoholic beverages reduces the chances of heart disease. We might well ask what sorts of tests were done to reach this conclusion and do the tests really justify the claim? We read that certain geographical configurations in South America "prove" that this planet was visited by aliens from outer space. Does this argument differ from other, accepted scientific arguments? This course is designed to aid the student in making sense of a variety of elementary logic skills in conjunction with the application of those skills to actual cases.

HPS 0612: Mind and Medicine
Kelsey Ward
T & H 9:30-10:45 am
This course is designed as an introduction to the philosophical issues that exist at the intersection of psychology and medicine. Among others, we will examine the following questions: What does it mean to be healthy? Can one define health and sickness purely objectively? Should human medical judgments (e.g., clinicians’ judgments) be replaced by purely automatic, computerized procedures? What is the nature of medical expertise? Are medical judgments influenced by various biases and can these biases be overcome? Are psychiatric disorders real? How should scientists explain psychiatric disorders? How much do we learn about them by studying animals (e.g., rats)? Can evolutionary biology be useful to psychiatry? The goal of this class is to provide students with a critical understanding of these philosophical issues. Previous knowledge of biology, psychology, and medicine is not needed for this class. Key notions and theories in these fields will be introduced progressively. Prerequisites: There are no formal prerequisites for this course. This course is part of a core sequence leading to certification in the Conceptual Foundations of Medicine Program, and is a companion course to HPS 0613 (Morality and Medicine) but may be taken independently. This course is of particular interest to pre-medical and pre-health care students.

HPS 0612: Mind and Medicine
David Colaco
Thurs 6:00-8:30 pm
This course is designed as an introduction to the philosophical issues that exist at the intersection of psychology and medicine. Among others, we will examine the following questions: What does it mean to be healthy? Can one define health and sickness purely objectively? Should human medical judgments (e.g., clinicians’ judgments) be replaced by purely automatic, computerized procedures? What is the nature of medical expertise? Are medical judgments influenced by various biases and can these biases be overcome? Are psychiatric disorders real? How should scientists explain psychiatric disorders? How much do we learn about them by studying animals (e.g., rats)? Can evolutionary biology be useful to psychiatry? The goal of this class is to provide students with a critical understanding of these philosophical issues. Previous knowledge of biology, psychology, and medicine is not needed for this class. Key notions and theories in these fields will be introduced progressively. Prerequisites: There are no formal prerequisites for this course. This course is part of a core sequence leading to certification in the Conceptual Foundations of Medicine Program, and is a companion course to HPS 0613 (Morality and Medicine) but may be taken independently. This course is of particular interest to pre-medical and pre-health care students.

HPS 0613: Morality and Medicine
Dr. Sandra D. Mitchell
M & W 2:00-2:50 pm
Ethical dilemmas in the practice of health care continue to proliferate and receive increasing attention from members of the health care profession, ethicists, policy makers, and the general public as health care consumers. In this course we will examine a number of ethical issues that arise in the context of contemporary medical practice and research by analyzing articles and decision scenarios. Topics to be covered typically include the physician-patient relationship; informed consent; medical experimentation; termination of treatment; genetics; reproductive technologies, including cloning and stem cells; euthanasia, including the recent Sciavo case; resource allocation; and health care reform. Students who successfully complete this course will be able to identify and analyze different philosophical approaches to selected issues in medical ethics; have gained insight into how to read and critically interpret philosophical arguments; and have developed skills that will enable them to think clearly about ethical questions as future or current health care providers, policy makers, and consumers.
This course is part of a core sequence leading to certification in the Conceptual Foundations of Medicine Certificate Program, and is a companion course to HPS 0612 (Mind and Medicine) but may be taken independently. The course is of particular interest to pre-medical and pre-health care students.
Recitation: One hour a week.

HPS 0613: Morality and Medicine
Jeffrey Sykora
Tues 6:00-8:30 pm
Ethical dilemmas in the practice of health care continue to proliferate and receive increasing attention from members of the health care profession, ethicists, policy makers, and the general public as health care consumers. In this course we will examine a number of ethical issues that arise in the context of contemporary medical practice and research by analyzing articles and decision scenarios. Topics to be covered typically include the physician-patient relationship; informed consent; medical experimentation; termination of treatment; genetics; reproductive technologies, including cloning and stem cells; euthanasia, including the recent Sciavo case; resource allocation; and health care reform. Students who successfully complete this course will be able to identify and analyze different philosophical approaches to selected issues in medical ethics; have gained insight into how to read and critically interpret philosophical arguments; and have developed skills that will enable them to think clearly about ethical questions as future or current health care providers, policy makers, and consumers.
This course is part of a core sequence leading to certification in the Conceptual Foundations of Medicine Certificate Program, and is a companion course to HPS 0612 (Mind and Medicine) but may be taken independently. The course is of particular interest to pre-medical and pre-health care students.

HPS 0613: Morality and Medicine
Taku Iwatsuki
Thurs 6:00-8:30 pm
Ethical dilemmas in the practice of health care continue to proliferate and receive increasing attention from members of the health care profession, ethicists, policy makers, and the general public as health care consumers. In this course we will examine a number of ethical issues that arise in the context of contemporary medical practice and research by analyzing articles and decision scenarios. Topics to be covered typically include the physician-patient relationship; informed consent; medical experimentation; termination of treatment; genetics; reproductive technologies, including cloning and stem cells; euthanasia, including the recent Sciavo case; resource allocation; and health care reform. Students who successfully complete this course will be able to identify and analyze different philosophical approaches to selected issues in medical ethics; have gained insight into how to read and critically interpret philosophical arguments; and have developed skills that will enable them to think clearly about ethical questions as future or current health care providers, policy makers, and consumers.
This course is part of a core sequence leading to certification in the Conceptual Foundations of Medicine Certificate Program, and is a companion course to HPS 0612 (Mind and Medicine) but may be taken independently. The course is of particular interest to pre-medical and pre-health care students.

HPS 0621: Problem Solving: How Science Works
Lei Jiang
Weds 6:00-8:30 pm
A scientist announces that the sun contains a new, so-far unknown chemical element, even though there is no hope of getting a sample. Another is sure that a famous predecessor has faked his data, even though he has seen nothing but the perfect, published results. Astonishingly, both claims prove to be sober and sound. We will explore the approaches and methods that make such miracles part of the routine of everyday science. This course is intended for students with little or no background in science.

HPS 1620: Philosophy of Biology
Dr. Stephen A. Inkpen
M & W 10:00a.m.-11:15a.m
Philosophy of Biology will consider methodological and conceptual issues in biology through an historical lens. Drawing on the writings of life scientists from Charles Darwin onwards as well as current philosophers of biology, we will consider the nature and structure of biological explanation, the possibility of laws in evolutionary theory, the problem of species reality and classification, the metaphorical representations of evolution and natural selection, the methods biologists use to learn about the world, whether biology is an historical or exact science, and more. It is designed for both the philosopher who can explore central epistemological and metaphysical issues in the context of biological science and for the biologist who wants to explore the conceptual foundations and presuppositions of her science. The students will read primary historical and philosophical texts, engage in discussion and write essays. The format of the course will be a combination of lecture and discussion.

HPS 1653 / PHIL 1610: Introduction to Philosophy of Science
Dr. James F. Woodward
M & W 1:00-1:50 pm
The aim of this course is to provide a broad survey of some fundamental questions in philosophy of science, and to cultivate your ability to think through these difficult questions in a clear and critical way. The course is divided in three main parts. In the first part, we explore the questions: "What is science? Is there a valid scientific method?" We tackle these questions by looking at the problem of induction, some classic answers to it, and following developments in confirmation theory. In part two, we investigate the questions: "Is science aiming at truth? Or does it only aim at saving the phenomena?" We critically assess three main philosophical views surrounding this issue. Finally, in part three, we concentrate on more specific questions such as: "What is a scientific explanation?" and "What is a law of nature?" We look, once again, at both traditional answers and more recent attempts to answer those challenging questions.

HPS 1670 / PHIL 1670: Philosophy of Neuroscience
Dr. Mazviita Chirimuuta
Tu & Th 1:00-2:15 pm
This course examines the major debates within philosophy of neuroscience. Neuroscientists have made countless important and fascinating discoveries about the structure and function of the brain. The task of philosophy of neuroscience is to see how these discoveries relate to longstanding philosophical questions about the nature of the mind, consciousness, and morality (“neuroethics”). Furthermore, it is important to analyse explanations in neuroscience to see what kinds of questions about the brain and behaviour are currently being addressed, and to understand their significance.

HPS 1690 / PHIL 1690: Topics in Philosophy of Science
Dr. Giovanni Valente
M & W 4:30-5:45 pm
Course description N/A